The Impact on Economic and Environmental Development of COVID-19 Pandemic: a Case Study in Indonesia

Nur Indriani Dewi(1*), Fadilla Citra Melati(2)
(*) Corresponding Author

DOI: 10.24269/ekuilibrium.v16i1.2021.pp1-11


The goal of this analysis is to examine in greater detail the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on economic development and the quality of the atmosphere in Indonesia. This report uses secondary data as the primary source, obtained using a secondary data collection method from many different organizations. Different government policies and measures to discourage the escalation of the transmission of the Coronavirus, one of which is large-scale social restrictions (PSBB). However, before Indonesia suffered a recession, the PSBB actually became a barrier to economic development. As a part of this program, the rise in environmental efficiency is another positive effect because traffic that generates emissions and vast manufacturing sectors that create dirty waste is temporarily halted. Based on the findings of the review, this report notes that there is a detrimental effect of COVID-19 on economic development in Indonesia. However, because of the introduction of PSBB, Indonesia's air quality has improved. This report is intended to serve as a reference and assessment of the effects of COVID-19 on the economy and the atmosphere for stakeholders and the general public. In order to allow the government to consider measures that will deter the spread of the coronavirus and restore the economy without damaging improved air quality.


COVID-19; Environmental Pandemic; PSBB; Pollutan

Full Text:


  1. Bai, Y., Yao, L., Wei, T., Tian, F., Jin, D.-Y., Chen, L., & Wang, M. (2020). Presumed Asymptomatic Carrier Transmission of COVID-19. Jama, 323(14), 1406–1407.
  2. Becchetti, L., Conzo, G., Conzo, P., & Salustri, F. (2020). Understanding the Heterogeneity of Adverse COVID-19 Outcomes: the Role of Poor Quality of Air and Lockdown Decisions. Available at SSRN 3572548.
  3. Chen, P.-S., Tsai, F. T., Lin, C. K., Yang, C.-Y., Chan, C.-C., Young, C.-Y., & Lee, C.-H. (2010). Ambient Influenza and Avian Influenza Virus during Dust Storm Days and Background Days. Environmental Health Perspectives, 118(9), 1211–1216.
  4. Cheng, V. C. C., Wong, S.-C., Chen, J. H. K., Yip, C. C. Y., Chuang, V. W. M., Tsang, O. T. Y., Sridhar, S., Chan, J. F. W., Ho, P.-L., & Yuen, K.-Y. (2020). Escalating Infection Control Response to the Rapidly Evolving Epidemiology of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to SARS-CoV-2 in Hong Kong. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, 41(5), 493–498.
  5. Cheng, W. L., Fu, Q., Chai, F., Davis, S. J., Zhang, Q., & He, K. (2020). Enhanced Secondary Pollution Offset Reduction of Primary Emissions during COVID-19 Lockdown in China Xin Huang1, Aijun Ding1, Jian Gao2, Bo Zheng3, 4, Derong Zhou1, Ximeng Qi1, Rong Tang1, Chuanhua Ren1, Wei Nie1, Xuguang Chi1, Jiaping Wang1, Zheng Xu1, L.
  6. Chinazzi, M., Davis, J. T., Ajelli, M., Gioannini, C., Litvinova, M., Merler, S., y Piontti, A. P., Mu, K., Rossi, L., & Sun, K. (2020). The Effect of Travel Restrictions on the Spread of the 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Outbreak. Science, 368(6489), 395–400.
  7. CNBC. (2020). Kabar Pertumbuhan Ekonomi Indonesia Pasca Covid-19. Cnbc News.
  8. Conticini, E., Frediani, B., & Caro, D. (2020). Can Atmospheric Pollution be Considered a Co-Factor in Extremely High Level of SARS-CoV-2 Lethality in Northern Italy? Environmental Pollution, 114465.
  9. Cori, L., & Bianchi, F. (2020). COVID-19 and Air Pollution: Communicating the Results of Geographic Correlation Studies. Epidemiol. Prev, 44, 120–123.
  10. Gopinath, G. (2020). The Great Lockdown: Worst Economic Downturn since the Great Depression. IMF Blog, 14, 2020.
  11. Laake, P., & Benestad, H. B. (2015). Research in Medical and Biological Sciences: From Planning and Preparation to Grant Application and Publication. Academic Press.
  12. Lai, C.-C., Shih, T.-P., Ko, W.-C., Tang, H.-J., & Hsueh, P.-R. (2020). Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and Corona Virus Disease-2019 (COVID-19): the Epidemic and the Challenges. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 105924.
  13. McNabb, D. E. (2015). Fundamentals of Quantitative Research. In Research Methods in Public Administration and Nonprofit Management (pp. 159–169). Routledge.
  14. Mele, M., & Magazzino, C. (2020). Pollution, Economic Growth, and COVID-19 Deaths in India: a Machine Learning Evidence. Environmental Science and Pollution Research.
  15. Mofijur, M., Fattah, I. M. R., Alam, M. A., Islam, A. B. M. S., Ong, H. C., Rahman, S. M. A., Najafi, G., Ahmed, S. F., Uddin, M. A., & Mahlia, T. M. I. (2021). Impact of COVID-19 on the Social, Economic, Environmental and Energy Domains: Lessons Learnt from a Global Pandemic. Sustainable Production and Consumption, 26, 343–359.
  16. Muhammad, S., Long, X., & Salman, M. (2020). COVID-19 Pandemic and Environmental Pollution: A Blessing in Disguise? Science of the Total Environment, 728, 138820.
  17. Nicola, M., Alsafi, Z., Sohrabi, C., Kerwan, A., Al-Jabir, A., Iosifidis, C., Agha, M., & Agha, R. (2020). The Socio-Economic Implications of the Coronavirus Pandemic (COVID-19): A Review. International Journal of Surgery (London, England), 78, 185.
  18. Peng, L., Zhao, X., Tao, Y., Mi, S., Huang, J., & Zhang, Q. (2020). The Effects of Air Pollution and Meteorological Factors on Measles Cases in Lanzhou, China. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 1–10.
  19. Piazzalunga-Expert, A. (2020). Evaluation of the Potential Relationship between Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution and COVID-19 Infection Spread in Italy. Mimeo.
  20. Tambunan, L. (2020). Kualitas Udara Jakarta selama PSBB. BBC News Indonesia, 5(10), 89. ANTARAfoto/
  21. Wang, Q., & Su, M. (2020a). A Preliminary Assessment of the Impact of COVID-19 on Environment – a Case Study of China. Science of the Total Environment, 728, 138915.
  22. Wang, Q., & Su, M. (2020b). Drivers of Decoupling Economic Growth from Carbon Emission – an Empirical Analysis of 192 Countries using Decoupling Model and Decomposition Method. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 81, 106356.
  23. Wang, Q., Su, M., Li, R., & Ponce, P. (2019). The Effects of Energy Prices, Urbanization and Economic Growth on Energy Consumption Per Capita in 186 Countries. Journal of Cleaner Production, 225, 1017–1032.
  24. Wu, X., Nethery, R. C., Sabath, B. M., Braun, D., & Dominici, F. (2020). Exposure to Air Pollution and COVID-19 Mortality in the United States. MedRxiv.
  25. Ye, Q., Fu, J., Mao, J., & Shang, S. (2016). Haze is a Risk Factor Contributing to the Rapid Spread of Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Children. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 23(20), 20178–20185.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.