The Concept of Wasatiyyah in The Views of al-Zamakhshari and Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī

Tumin Tumin, Firman Mansir, Halim Purnomo

Abstract


Bombings in the name of Islam, such as in Turkey, Indonesia, and the French have damaged the integrity of Islam. These acts of extremism are ubiquitous and lead to Islamophobia especially in western countries. While in fact, Islam has taught and promoted the concept of moderation (wasatiyyah) since its emergence in order to avoid extremism among humankind. One of the main underpinning verses in the Qur’an that talks about the concept of wasatiyyah is Surah Al-Baqarah, Verse 143. This paper explores two different views of theological schools, namely Al-Zamakhshari, who represents the Mu‘tazilites and Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī, who represents the Ash’arites in dealing with the verse and its interpretations. In its analysis, the paper applied a theological approach to analyze the primary materials. It is expected that the findings will help in the implementation of the concept of moderation (Wasatiyyah) in the contemporary era. Finally, it will also serve as a guide on the ideal way of practicing Islam in order to eliminate and reduce extremism and foster peaceful co-existence between Muslims and adherents of other religions in the world.

Pemboman atas nama Islam, seperti di Turki, Indonesia, dan Prancis telah merusak integritas Islam. Tindakan ekstremisme ini ada di mana-mana dan mengarah ke Islamofobia terutama di negara-negara barat. Padahal sebenarnya, Islam telah mengajarkan dan mempromosikan konsep moderasi (wasatiyyah) sejak kemunculannya untuk menghindari ekstremisme di antara umat manusia. Salah satu ayat utama yang mendasari dalam Al-Qur'an yang berbicara tentang konsep wasatiyyah adalah Surah Al-Baqarah, Ayat 143. Makalah ini mengeksplorasi dua pandangan yang berbeda dari sekolah-sekolah teologis, yaitu Al-Zamakhshari, yang mewakili Mu'tazilah dan Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī, yang mewakili kaum Ash'ari dalam kaitannya dengan ayat dan interpretasinya. Dalam analisisnya, makalah ini menerapkan pendekatan teologis untuk menganalisis bahan-bahan primer. Diharapkan temuan ini akan membantu dalam penerapan konsep moderasi (wasatiyyah) di era kontemporer. Akhirnya, itu juga akan berfungsi sebagai panduan tentang cara ideal mempraktikkan Islam untuk menghilangkan dan mengurangi ekstrimisme dan menumbuhkan ko-eksistensi damai antara Muslim dan penganut agama lain di dunia.


Keywords


Wasatiyyah; Moderation; Extremism; Al-Zamakhshari; Al-Razi

References


Abdullah Md Zin. 2013. Pendekatan wasatiyyah: Definisi, konsep, dan pelaksanaan (Wasatiyah Approach: The definition, conception and application). Putrajaya, Malaysia: Institut Wasatiyyah Malaysia, Jabatan Perdana Menteri. 50

Al-Zamakhshari, I. U. M. 2009.Tafsir al-Kashaf. Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Ma’arifah.

Amir Moezzi, Mohammad Ali. 2007. Le Guide divin dans le shî‘isme originel. New ed. Paris-Lagrasse: Editions Verdier. 157

Al-Dhahabi, Muhammad Husain. 2012.Al-Tafsir wal-Mufassirun.Cairo: Maktabah Wahabah, vol.1,p.210.

Al-Subki, T. al-Din. 2008. Tabaqat al-Shafi’iyyah al- Kubra. Cairo: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah. 212

Ayazi, Sayyid Muhammad Ali. 2009. al-Mufassirūn Ḥayātuhum wa Manhajuhum. Wizayara al-Tsaqofah wa al-Irshad al-Islam. 573-578

Al-Qaradawi, Yusuf. 2010. Fiqh al-wasatiyyah al-Islamiyah wa at-taqdid (ma’alim wa manarat). Cairo: Dar al-Shurouq. 103

Al-Qaththan, Syeikh Manna’. 2015. Mabahits fii ‘Ulum al-Qur’an. Lebanon Dar al-Fikr. 115

Badeen, Edward. 2008. Sunnitische Theologie in osmanischer Zeit. Würzburg: Ergon. 145

Fudah,Mahmud Basyuni. 1986. Nash’at al-Tafsir wa Manahijuhu fidaw’i al-Madhahib al-Islamiyyah. Cairo: Matba’at al-Amanah. 189

Hassan, Mohd Kamal. 2011. The Concept of Al-Wasatiyyah and the Significance of Islamic Moderation. In Resilience and Resolve: Communities against Terrorism, 41-57.

Ibn Kathir, Abul Fida’ Ismail bin Umar. 2010. Al-Bidayah Wa al-Nihayah.Beirut: Dar al-Fikr, 1407H, vol.13. 55

Kamali, Mohd Hashim. 2010. Moderation and balance in Islam: The Qur'anic principle of Wasatiyyah’, IAIS Malaysia Monograph Series No.1. International Institute of Advanced Islamic Studies Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 50

Madelung, Wilferd. 1970. “Imâmism and Mu‘tazilite Theology.”In Le Shî‘isme imâmite. Actes du colloque de Strasbourg, 6–9 May 1968, edited by Toufic Fahd, 13–29. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France (reprinted in Wilfred Madelung. 1985. “Article 7.” In Religious Schools and Sects in Medieval Islam. London: Variorum Reprints).

Modarressi, Hossein. 1984. “Rationalism and Traditionalism in Shī‘ī Jurisprudence: A Preliminary Survey.” Studia Islamica 59: 141–158.

Perler, Dominik, and Ulrich Rudolph. 2000. Occasionalismus. Theorien der Kausalität im arabisch-islamischen und im europäischen Denken. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. 201

Rahman, S. A., Baharuddin, N., Ahmad, H., Sempo, M. W. M. W., Saad, N. S. M., Baharun, H, Nurul Asiah Fasehah, M. (2017). Levels of Understanding the Content of the Quran Based on Surah Al-Ikhlas. Advanced Science Letters, 23(5), 4619–4622.

Ikhwan, A. (2015). Teori Dasar Metode Studi Islam (Pembacaan atas Pemikiran Charles J. Adams dan Richard C. Martin). At-Tasyrih: Jurnal Pendidikan Islam, 1(1). Retrieved from http://ojs.stai-muarabulian.ac.id/index.php/Attasyrih/article/view/11

Ikhwan, A. (2018). Management of Learning Assesment Using Curriculum 2013 (Case Study in Islamic Primary School (MI) Muhammadiyah 5 Wonoasri Ponorogo - East Java - Indonesia). MUADDIB: Studi Kependidikan Dan Keislaman, 08(02), 108–123. https://doi.org/10.24269/muaddib.v8i2.1422

Ikhwan, A., Ju’subaidi, Rohmad, A., & Muawanah, E. (2019). Development of Curriculum Keaswajaan ( Nahdlatul ‘ Ulama ) in Character Formation : In Global Perspectives on Teaching and Learning Paths in Islamic Education (pp. 92–117). IGI Global. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-5225-8528-2.ch006

Ikhwan, A., Oktio Frenki, B., & Rohmad, A. (2019). The Role of the Family in Internalizing Islamic Values. DINAMIKA ILMU, 19(2), 323–335. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.21093/di.v19i2.1746

Jauhari, M. I. (2017). Epistemological Framework of Islamic Education Science. Al-Hayat: Journal of Islamic Education, 01(01), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.24269/ijpi.v3i2.1511

Munjin. (2017). Social Capital: Trust Building As A Strategy Of Developing Madrasa (A Case Study at Islamic Elementary School (MI) Istiqomah Sambas Purbalingga). Al-Hayat: Journal of Islamic Education, 01(01), 1–32.

Saputro, A. D. (2016). IMPLEMENTASI PENGATURAN KARAKTER, FISIK DAN JENIS KELAMIN JANIN (dalam Kajian Tradisi, Sains dan Islam). Istawa: Jurnal Pendidikan Islam, 2(1), 43–72. https://doi.org/10.24269/ijpi.v2i1.362

Sidiq, U. (2019). Prophetic Leadership in the Development of Religious Culture in Modern Islamic Boarding Schools. Istawa: Jurnal Pendidikan Islam, 4(1), 80–97. https://doi.org/10.24269/ijpi.v4i1.1990

Suriadi Samsuri, Mursidin, M. (2018). Character Education Based on Gender Justice in The Islamic Perspective. Al-Hayat: Journal of Islamic Education, 2(2), 202–212. Retrieved from http://alhayat.or.id/index.php/alhayat/article/view/26

Zahra, D. N. (2019). Development of Islamic Education Curriculum Model Curriculum 2013 (K13). AL-HAYAT: Journal of Islamic Education, 3(1), 38–52. https://doi.org/10.35723/ajie.v3i1.50

Bakker, Anton and Zubair, Achmad Charris, Metodologi Penelitian Filsafat, (Yogyakarta: PT Kanisius, 1990), 17


Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.24269/ijpi.v5i1.2416

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2020 Istawa: Jurnal Pendidikan Islam