Citizen Engagement to the Anti-Drug Campaign: the Case of Philippines

Queenie Pearl V. Tomaro* -  Jusuf Kalla School of Government, Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Dyah Mutiarin -  Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta, Indonesia

DOI : 10.24269/ars.v7i1.1353

The study identifies mechanisms wherein Filipino students are able to engage in promoting a drug-free community and the efforts of the Philippine National Police to provide avenue for citizen engagement. Employing the Spectrum of Public Participation introduced by the International Association for Public Participation, the study investigates specific actions that the citizens would willingly partake in support of Duterte’s Drug War. From a sample of 194 students, the research was able to gather responses through close-ended self-reported questionnaire survey and from reports of the Philippine National Police. The study revealed that in all levels of the Public Participation Spectrum, the students are willing to be engaged with the Anti-Drug efforts. Also, efforts from the end of the Police were revealed to have not only be secluded in the inform level but has also reached the level of ‘empower’. Hence, the government of the Philippines must capitalize on these avenues to promote a sustainable and community-based Anti-Drug Campaign.

Keywords
Community-based, War on Drugs, Public Participation
  1. Amnesty International. (2018, July 23). Philippines: Duterte’s human rights smears a “classic diversionary tactic”. Amnesty International Press Release. Retrieved from https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2018/07/philippines-dutertes-human-rights-smears-a-classic-diversionary-tactic/.
  2. Baldwin, S. (2013). Drug Policy Advocacy in Asia: Challenges, opportunities and prospects. International Drug Policy Consortium Report. Retrieved from www.aidsdatahub.org/sites/default/files/.../drug_policy_advocacy_in_asia_2013.pdf
  3. Batel, S., Devine-Wright, P., and Tangeland, T. (2013). Social Acceptance of Low-Carbon Energy and Associated Infrastructures: A Critical Discussion.” Energy Policy, 58, 1-5.
  4. Baustista, L., (2017). Duterte and his quixotic war on drugs. Research Online Repository, University of Wollongong. Retrieved from http://ro.uow.edu.au/lhapapers/2866
  5. Bello, W. (2016, 7 August). The Left under Duterte, in: Jacobin. Retrieve from www.jacobinmag.com/2016/06/walden-bello-philippinesduterte-dignidad-coalition-akbayan
  6. Bradford, A. (2016). Community engagement and local government. University of Wollongong Thesis Collection, pp. 1-173.Retrieved from https://ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://www.google.com/&httpsredir=1&article=5900&context=theses
  7. Briola, J. (2017). Effective and humane ways to manage the drug problem in the Philippines, a human rights and public health perspective. Torture, 27(1), 82-84.
  8. U.S. Departmentof Justice Office of Community Oriented Policing Services. (2007). Building Trust Between the Police and the Citizens They Serve (COPS guide). International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP), 1-125. Retrieved from http://www.theiacp.org/portals/0/pdfs/BuildingTrust.pdf: 14 December 2017.
  9. Carpenter, A. (2013). Changing Lenses: Conflict Analysis and Mexico's "Drug War". Latin American Politics and Society, 55(3), 139-160. doi: 103.251.180.254. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/43284851
  10. Cataldi, R. (2001). Social acceptance of geothermal projects - problems and costs. EC International Geothermal course. Oradea, 343 - 351.
  11. Chapman, Audrey R. & Babor, Thomas F. Duterte’s War on Drugs and the Silence of the Addiction Science Community. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs. 78 (4): 491-493. https://doi.org/10.15288/jsad.2017.78.491
  12. Chermak, S. & Weiss, A. (2003, 03 July). Marketing Community Policing in the News: A Missed Opportunity?. Research for Practice. National Institute of Justice. Retrieved from https://www.ncjrs.gov/App/Publications/abstract.aspx?ID=200473: 14 December 2017.
  13. CNN. (2018, January 29). What we know so far about Kian's death. Retrieved from http://cnnphilippines.com/news/2017/08/24/timeline-kian-delos-santos-death.html: 3 December 2018.
  14. Coca, Nithin. (2018, January 29). The War on Drugs in Southeast Asia. New Naratif. Retrieved from https://newnaratif.com/journalism/the-war-on-drugs-in-southeast-asia/
  15. Colton, J., Corscadden, K., Fast, S., Gattinger, M., Gehman, J., Findlay, M.H., Morgan, D., Sayers, J., Winter, J., & Yatchew, A. (2016). Energy Projects, Social Licence, Public Acceptance and Regulatory Systems in Canada: A White Paper. The School of Public Policy, Vol. 9, No. 20, pp. 1-. ISSN: 1919-1138.
  16. Department of Interior and Local Government. (2017, November 13). Department of Interior and Local Government Memorandum Circular 2017-154. Operational Guidelines on the Implementation of the People’s Law Enforcement Board (PLEB), Retrieved from http://calabarzon.dilg.gov.ph/news/mc-2017-154-operational-guidelines-on-the-implementation-of-the-peoples-law-enforcement-boards-plebprogram/.
  17. Dioquino, R. (2016, August 12). Walden Bello Tells Duterte: Addressing Poverty,Not Killings, the Way to Solve Drug Problem. GMA News. Retrieved from www.gmanetwork.com/news/story/577394/news/nation/walden-bello-tells-duterte-addressing-poverty-not-killings-the-way-to-solve-drug-problem: 4 January 2018.
  18. Fisher-Stewart, G. (2007). Community Policing Explained: A Guide for Local Governments. International City/County Management Association, United States of America. Retrieved from https://www.ncjrs.gov/App/Publications/abstract.aspx?ID=241813: 14 December 2017.
  19. International Association of Public Participation. (2007). IAP2 Spectrum of Public Participation. Retrieved from http://c.ymcdn.com/sites/www.iap2.org/resource/resmgr/imported/IAP2%20Spectrum_vertical.pdf.
  20. International Association of Public Participation. (2014). IAP2’s Spectrum of Public Participation. Retrieved from https://www.iap2.org.au/Tenant/C0000004/00000001/files/IAP2_Public_Participation_Spectrum.pdf
  21. Kleiman, Mark A. R. (2009). When Brute Force Fails-. How to Have Less crime and punishment. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
  22. Mathiyazhagan, T., & Nandan, D. (2010). Survey Research Method. Media Mimansa, 34-82. Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.464.5585&rep=rep1&type=pdf
  23. Mayol, A., Bunachita, J, & Semilla, N. (2017, March 9). Duterte Declares Cebu Has Highest Drug Rate. Cebu Daily News. Retrieved from http://cebudailynews.inquirer.net/125579/duterte-declares-cebu-highest-drug-rate.
  24. Mazo, G. (2017). Transformational Rehabilitation: Community-based Intervention to end the drug menace. International Journal of Research- Granthaalayah, 5(12), 183-190. ISSN: 2350-0530
  25. McKirdy, E. (2016, August 26). 'Knock and plead' -- On night patrol with Philippines police. Philippine War on Drugs, CNN. Retrieved from https://edition.cnn.com/2016/08/25/asia/philippines-police-knock-and-plead-drug-operations/index.html.
  26. Patel, J., Nelimarkka, M., Nonnecke, B., Krishnan, S., Aitamurto, A., Huang, A., Newsom, G., Gregory, C., Catterson, D., Crittenden, C., Scott, J., Garland, C., & Goldberg, G. (2014, September). Paper presented at University of Oxford: Internet, Policy, and Politics Conference on Crowdsourcing for Politics and Policy (IPP2014). Oxford, United Kingdom.
  27. Nelissen, W.J.A. & Bartels, G.C. (1998). De transactionele overheid. In: Bartels, G, Nelissen, W. & Ruelle, H. (ed), De transactionele overheid. Communicatie als instrument: zes thema’s in de overheidsvoorlichting. Kluwer BedrijfsInformatie, Utrecht.
  28. Pimbert, M. &Wakeford, T. (February 2001). Overview – deliberative democracy and citizen empowerment. PLA Notes 40, 23-28. IIED on 25 September 2000: ‘The Forgotten Human Right? Methods for Participation and Citizen Empowerment in the North and South’.
  29. Philippine National Police. (2016). PNP 2016 Annual Report. Retrieved from www.pnp.gov.ph/images/publications/AR2016.pdf: 14 December 2017
  30. PNP Memorandum Circular 2005-009. (2005, April 30). Barangayanihan. Retrieved from https://dpcr.pnp.gov.ph/.../CMC%20No.%202015-009%20BARANGAYANIHAN.pd: 04 January 2018.
  31. Philippine National Police (2017). PNP One Year Report. Retrieved from https://www.pnp.gov.ph/images/publications/CPNPDelaRosa_OneYearReport16-17.pdf: 04 January 2018.
  32. Reith, S., Kölbel, T., Schlagermann P., Pellizzone, A., & Allansdottir, A. (2013). Public acceptance of geothermal electricity production, Report on public acceptance, GEOLEC. Retrieved from http://www.geoelec.eu/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/D-4.4-GEOELEC-report-on-public-acceptance.pdf: 14 December 2017.
  33. Republic Act No. 8551 of 1998, Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved from https://www.lawphil.net/statutes/repacts/ra1998/ra_8551_1998.html: 04 January 2018.
  34. Reyes, D. (2016). The Spectacle of Violence in Duterte’s “War on Drugs”. Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs. 35(3), 111–137. ISSN: 1868-4882
  35. Ščasný, M. et. al. (2016). Public acceptability of climate change mitigation policies: a discrete choice experiment,Climate Policy, 17(1), 111-130. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/14693062.2016.124888
  36. Thompson,M, (2016). Bloodied Democracy: Duterte and the Death of Liberal Reformism in the Philippines, Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs, 35(3),39–68, ISSN: 1868-4882
  37. Tigno, J., (2018),The Philippines in 2017, Popularity Breeds Contempt. Asian Survey, 58(1), 142–148, ISSN: 0004-4687, doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/AS.2018.58.1.142.
  38. United Nations Human Rights- Office of High Commissioner on Human Rights. (2016, August 18). UN experts urge the Philippines to stop unlawful killings of people suspected of drug-related offences. OHCHR Press Release. Retrieved from https://www.ohchr.org/EN/Countries/AsiaRegion/Pages/PHIndex.aspx
  39. Vlassenroot, S., De Mol, J., Brijs, T., & Wets, G. (2006). Defining the Public Support: What can Determine Acceptability of Road Safety Measures by a General Public? European Transport Conference (ETC) 2006, Strasbourg, France. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1942/1380: 14 December 2017.
  40. Waller, I. (2006). Less Law, More Order: The Truth About Reducing Crime. Westport: Praeger.

Full Text:
Article Info
Submitted: 2018-12-10
Published: 2018-12-10
Section: Artikel
Article Statistics: 79 61