Moderation and Civilization (A Historical Analysis on the Moderate Policy of the Rustamid Dynasty)

Ahmad Choirul Rofiq


The Rustamid Dynasty (160-296 AH / 776-909 AD) was a remarkable Ibadite dynasty. Unfortunately, most of the historical works have paid little attention to the development of Islamic civilization during the Rustamid reign. This fact is very contrary to the study of Sunnite or Shi’ite dynasties. This paper shows that the Rustamids performed their moderate policy by giving great tolerance, freedom, and equality to all citizens who lived in their territory, especially in Tahert (part of Algeria) and Jabal Nafusah (part of Libya). Consequently, this moderate policy, which was encouraged by the moderate Ibadite doctrine, had influence on the establishment of Islamic civilization in the Maghrib. The Rustamids successively played a significant role in economic prosperity, intellectual development, and Islamization. Like the Rustamids, the plural society of Indonesia can obtain the achievements of civilization by maintaining their multicultural diversity. Hence, the Indonesian government, the Muslim organizations, and all of the Muslim people should promote tolerant Islamic teachings and support intellectual movement.


the Ibadites, the Rustamids, Moderate Policy, Islamic Civilization

Full Text:



Al-Aayed, S. H. 2002. The Rights of Non-Muslims in the Islamic World. Riyadh: Dar Eshbelia.

Al-Baruni, S. B. 1987. Al-Azhar ar-Riyadhiyyah fi A'immah wa Muluk al-Ibadhiyyah. Vol. 2. Oman: Salthanah 'Uman.

Al-Hamawi, Y. 1977. Mu‘jam al-Buldan. Vol. 5. Beirut: Dar Shadir.

Al-Hariri, M. 1987. Ad-Daulah ar-Rustamiyyah bi al-Maghrib al-Islami. Kuwait: Dar al-Qalam.

Ali, A. 1994. A Short History of the Saracens. New Delhi: Nusrat Ali Nasri for Kitab Bhavan.

Al-Isfaraini, A. 1988. At-Tabshir fi ad-Din wa Tamyiz al-Firqah an-Najiyah ‘an al-Firaq al-Halikin. Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah.

Al-Sheha, A. R. 1980. Human Rights in Islam and Misconceptions. London: Islamic Foundation.

Al-'Udat. 1992. Al-'Arab al-Nashara. Damascus: al-Ahali.

Ash-Shaghir, I. 1986. Akhbar al-A'immah ar-Rustamiyyin. Beirut : Dar al-Gharb al-Islami.

Ashimi, Tijani Ahmad. 2016. "Islamic Civilization: Factors Behind Its Glory and Decline". International Journal of Business, Economics and Law. Vol. 9, Issue 5. 180-184.

Azra, A. 2006. "Indonesian Islam, Mainstream Muslims and Politics". Taiwanese and Indonesian Islamic Leaders Exchange Project (pp. 1-11). Taiwan Taipei: The Asia Foundation.

Balhah, B. i. 2010. Al-Imamah ‘inda al-Ibadhiyyah baina an-Nazhariyyah wa at-Tathbiq. Vol. 2. Oman: Maktabah adh-Dhamiri.

Gawronski, D. V. 1969. History: Meaning and Method. Illinois: Scott, Foresman, and Company.

Grunebaum, G. E. 1953. Medieval Islam. Chicago: University of Chicago.

Guralnik, D. B. 1996. Webster's New World College Dictionary. New York: A Simon & Schuster Macmillan Company.

Haidar, K. 1988. I‘tidal am Tatharruf. Kuwait: Dar Qirthas li an-Nasyr.

Hasan, H. I. 1967. Tarikh al-Islam as-Siyasi, wa ad-Dini, wa ats-Tsaqafi, wa al-Ijtima‘i. Vol. 4. Cairo: Maktabah an-Nahdhah al-Mishriyyah.

Holt, P. 1970. The Cambridge History of Islam. Vol. IA. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Isma‘il, M. 1985. Al-Khawarij fi Bilad al-Maghrib hatta Muntashaf al-Qarn ar-Rabi‘. Maghrib: Dar ats-Tsaqafah.

Kaye, A. S. 1997. “Bilad al-Sudan” in The Encyclopaedia of Islam. Vol. 9. Leiden: E. J. Bril.

Kennedy, H. 1986. The Prophet and the Age of the Caliphates. London: Longman.

Kuntowijoyo. 1997. Pengantar Ilmu Sejarah. Yogyakarta: Bentang.

Lewis, B. 1974. Islam from the Prophet to the Capture of Constantinople. New York: Harper & Row.

Lombard, M. 2004. The Golden Age of Islam. Princeton: Markus Wiener Publishers.

Mawdudi, A. A. 1980. Human Rights in Islam. London: Islamic Foundation.

Mu‘ammar, Y. 2008. Al-Ibadhiyyah fi Maukib at-Tarikh. Vol. 2. Seeb: Maktabah adh-Dhamiri.

Nashir, M. S. 2006. Mu‘jam A‘lam al-Ibadhiyyah min al-Qarn al-Awwal al-Hijri ila al-‘Ashr al-Hadhir. Beirut: Dar al-Gharb al-Islami.

Ni’am, S. 2015. “Pesantren: the miniature of moderate Islam in Indonesia”. Indonesian Journal of Islam and Muslim Societies, 5, 111-134.

O'Leary, D. L. 1979. How Greek Science Passed to the Arabs . Great Britain: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd.

Peters, F. 1994. A Reader on Classical Islam. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Surbakti, R. 1992. Memahami Ilmu Politik. Jakarta: Gramedia Widiasarana Indonesia.

Watt, W. M. 1961. Muhammad, Prophet and Statesman. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Zahrah, M. A. 1946. Tarikh al-Madzahib al-Islamiyyah fi as-Siyasah wa al-‘Aqa'id. Egypt: Dar al-Fikr al-‘Arabi.

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 102 times
PDF - 78 times



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 ARISTO

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

View My Stats

  Flag Counter