THE KERCH STRAIT INCIDENT: IS THERE A BREACH OF INTERNATIONAL LAW?

Michelle Viandy Huang* -  Tarumanegara University, Indonesia

DOI : 10.24269/ls.v4i1.2075

On 23th November 2018, the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation ("FSB") destroyed and captured three of Ukrainian Military Vessel, as well as detaining 24 of its personnels. As the dispute continues, Ukraine raised this matter to the International Tribunals on Law of The Sea (“ITLOS”), requesting a provisional measure pursuant to Article 280 paragraph 5 UNCLOS to release the vessels and personnels detained. ITLOS has made its order on 25th May 2019, ruling that Russia must release the detainee and return the vessels immediately to Ukraine. However, Russia refused to enforce the order and denied ITLOS jurisdiction over this matter due to the involvement of military aspect in the incident. Therefore, this paper provides an answer to the questions whether Russia’s act constitutes a violation to international law and whether ITLOS has the jurisdiction over the dispute.

Keywords
Maritime Law; Wrongful Act; Jurisdiction
  1. International Law Commission. Draft Articles on the effects of armed conflicts on Treaties. (2011).
  2. United Nations. Declaration on Principles of International Law concerning Friendly Relations and Cooperation among States in accordance with the UN Charter. UN Doc A/RES/2625(XXV).
  3. United Nations. The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. 1982.
  4. United Nations General Assembly. UNGA Resolution 3314 (XXIX). UN Doc. A/RES/3314(XXIX). 14 December 1974.
  5. Bergman, Paul and Sara J. Represent Yourself in Court: How to Prepare & Try a Winning Case. 9th Edition. (Nolo: 2016).
  6. Bernaerts, Arnd. Bernaerts’ Guide to the 1982 United Nations Convention on Law of the Sea, Reprint of 1988 Edition. (Trafford, Canada: 2006).
  7. Clark, Mary T. A Chapter in Augustine and Social Justice. (Lexington Books: 2015).
  8. Fleck, D. The Handbook of Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflicts. (Oxford University Press: 1995).
  9. Garner, Bryan A. Black’s Law Dictionary. Tenth Edition. (Thomson West, Aspatore Books: 2016).
  10. Gavouneli, Maria. Functional Jurisdiction in the Law of the Sea. (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers:2007).
  11. Gifis, Steven H. Barron’s Legal Guides: Law Dictionary. (Barron’s Educational Series Inc, US: 2016).
  12. Harrison, James. Making the Law of the Sea: A Study in the Development of International Law. (Cambridge: 2011).
  13. Hoffman, Marci and Mary Rumsey. International and Foreign Legal Research: A Coursebook. Second Edition. (Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2012).
  14. Knight, Andrew and Les Ruddock (ed). Advanced Research Methods in the Built Environment. (Oxford: Willey-Blackwell, 2008).
  15. Starke, J.G. Introduction to International Law. Tenth Edition. (Butterworths-Heinemann: 1977).
  16. Treves, Tullio. Historical Development of the Law of the Sea. (The Oxford Handbook of the Law of the Sea: 2015).
  17. Ahmed, Arif. “International Law of the Sea: An Overlook and Case Study”. Beijing Law Review. Vol. 8.7 March 2017.
  18. Apple, James G. “General Principles of International Law”. American Society of International Law and the International Judicial Academy.Vol.1 Issue 2. May 2006.
  19. Beale, Joseph H. “The Jurisdiction of a Sovereign State”. Harvard Law Review. Vol. 36 No. 3. January 1923.
  20. Coynash, Halya. “Russia ‘boycotts’ International Tribunal hearing on its illegal seizure of 24 Ukrainian seamen”. Human Rights Abuses in Russian-Occupied Crimea. 03 May 2019.
  21. Darrow-Kleinhaus, Suzanne, Carina Fung, and Rajat Shankar. “Learning to Work With IRAC”. Touro Law Center. 2006.
  22. Hutchinson, Terry and Nigel Duncan. “Defining And Describing What We Do : Doctrinal Legal Research”. Deakin Law Review. Volume 17 No. 1.
  23. Kurnia, Akbar. “Right of Innocent Passage based on United Nation Convention on Law of The Sea 1982”. Law Reform Journal. Vol. 7 No. 2. October 2016.
  24. Langbroek, Philip. “Methodology of Legal Research: Challenges and Opportunities”. Utrecht Law Review. 8 December 2017.
  25. Lederer, Edith M. “UN Committee passes resolution on Crimea, condemning Russian occupation”. Toronto Star Journal. 9 April 2017.
  26. Michaels, Rolf. “Jurisdiction, Foundations”. Forthcoming in Elgar Encyclopedia of Private International Law. 21 September 2017.
  27. Overland, Indra. “Financial Sanctions Impact Russian Oil, Equipment Export Ban’s Effects Limited”. Oil and Gas Journal. Vol 113(8). August 2015.
  28. Rosenne, Habtai. “International Courts and Tribunals, Jurisdiction and Admissibility of Inter-State Applications”. Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law. March 2006.
  29. Kharel, Amrit. “Doctrinal Legal Research”. Paper.
  30. OSCE. “OSCE Parliamentary Assembly adopts resolution condemning Russia’s continuing actions in Ukraine”. Press Release. 27 Febuary 2017.
  31. Petrova, Dimitrina. “The Declaration of Principles on Equality: A Contribution to International Human Rights”. The Equal rights Trust. April 2008.
  32. Williams, Simon O. “Maritime Security: The Concept of Innocent Passage”. The Maritime Executives. Vol. 2/2014. 17 Desember 2014.
  33. Russia and Ukraine. Agreement on Cooperation in the Use of Azov Sea and the Kerch Strait. 2003.
  34. ICTY. Judgement. The Prosecutor v. Boskoski. Case No. IT-04-82. (2008).
  35. ICTY. Judgement.The Prosecutor v. Radovan Karadzic. Case No. IT-95-5/18-T. (2016).
  36. ICTY. Judgement.The Prosecutor v. Tadic. Case No. IT-94-1. (1997).
  37. ITLOS. Order. Case Concerning the Detention of Three Ukrainian Naval Vessels. 25 May 2019.
  38. Al Jazeera News Agencies, “Ukraine: Movement through Kerch strait ‘partially restored’”. Al Jazeera. . 4 December 2018.
  39. Anonim. “Russia-Ukraine sea clash in 300 words”. BBC. . 30 November 2018.
  40. Anonim. “Russia-Ukraine tensions rise after Kerch Strait ship capture”. BBC. . 26 November 2018.
  41. Anonim. “Ukraine: Mounting evidence of war crimes and Russian involvement”. Amnesty International. https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2014/09/ukraine-mounting-evidence-war-crimes-and-russian-involvement/. 7 September 2014.
  42. Roth, Andrew. “Kerch Strait Confrontation: what happened and why does it matter?”. The Guardian News. . 27 November 2018.
  43. Hague, William. “Oral Statement to Parliament on the UK’s Response to the Situation in Ukraine”. https://www.gov.uk/government/speeches/uks-response-to-the-situation-in-ukraine. 4 March 2014.
  44. Kraska, James. “The Kerch Strait Incident: Law of the Sea or Law of Naval Warfare?”. . 3 December 2018.
  45. Schneider, Jennifer. “The IRAC Method”. Online Prep & Review. Course 5. .
  46. Ueda, Jason. “Organizing a Legal Discussion”. Columbia Law School Writing Center..
  47. Van Der Made, Jan. “Ukraine and Russia clash over Crimea at the ICJ”. . 8 July 2019.

Article Info
Submitted: 2019-11-10
Published: 2020-04-25
Section: Articles
Article Statistics: 86
Citation :